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Retinal Diseases

The retina is the inner layer that lines the back oft he eye. It mainly consists of nerve fibres and light receptors and its role is to capture the light which reaches the eye and send information about it to the visual part of the brain.

The macula is the central spot in the middle of the retina. It contains the highest density of light receptors and the lens system of the eye focuses images exactly on it. It is, therefore, responsible for the sharp vision and for the vision of colours.

What are the most common retinal diseases?

  • Age related macula degeneration (dry and wet): macular degeneration is the leading cause of legal blindness among the elderly population.
  • Epiretinal membranes.
  • Macular hole.
  • Posterior vitreous detachment and vitreous floaters.
  • Retinal detachment.
  • Diabetic retinopathy wit or without macular affection.
  • Macular oedema.
  • Retinal vessel occlusions (retinal “strokes”).
  • Retinitis pigmentosa.

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Because they can produce devastating and permanent visual impairment, leading to functional or total blindness.

Decades ago, there were almost no treatment options for macular degeneration and many other diseases of the retina. Nevertheless, with the development of modern diagnostic technology, as well as of modern microsurgery, lasers and medication (see below), cases that were untreatable just years ago, have become successfully treated nowadays. Still there are many issues left, but medical research shows promising developments for a near future.

  • Optical Biomicroscopy
  • Retinography
  • OCT (Optical Coherence Tomography)
  • Fluorescein angiography
  • Ultrasound scan
  • Electrophysiology: Evoked potentials / Electroretinography


  • Eye drops and tablets: Antiinflammatories, antibiotics
  • Vitamins as nutritional supplements
  • Tablets: Blood thinners, Corticosteroids
  • Medication for intraocular (intraviteal) injection in cases of Macular degeneration:
  • Corticosteroids used in cases of diabetic macular oedema:
    • Triamcinolone
    • Ozurdex® (Dexamethasone):


  • Argonlaser
  • Photodynamic Therapy


Magnifying and low-vision optical instruments:

A wide variety of rehabilitation options are available to help patients with low vision live and work more effectively, efficiently, and safely. Most people can be helped with one or more low vision treatment options.

The more commonly prescribed devices are:

  • Spectacle-mounted
  • Hand-held or spectacle-mounted telescopes
  • Hand-held and stand magnifiers
  • Video magnification

Several systems can be tried out in our office, before they might be prescribed.